Copyright and Acknowledgments
Copyright © July 2022 Violence Policy Center
The Violence Policy Center (VPC) is a national nonprofit educational organization that conducts research and public education on
violence in America and provides information and analysis to policymakers, journalists, advocates, and the general public.
This study was funded with the support of The Joyce Foundation.
This study was also supported by a generous gift from David and Ellen Berman.
This study was authored by VPC Senior Policy Analyst Marty Langley and VPC Executive Director Josh Sugarmann.
For a complete list of VPC publications with document links, please visit http://www.vpc.org/publications/.
To learn more about the Violence Policy Center, please visit www.vpc.org.
To make a tax-deductible contribution to help support our work, please visit https://www.vpc.org/contribute.
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